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From the Ubaid AND Kura -Araxes

por Olympus Mons, em 16.05.18


Yes, not to but and.

Everything in Transcaucasia 6th and 5th millennia seems to be Something-to-Ubaid.

I myself in my Shulaveri2Bellbeakers, have the Ubaid as culprits for the dismiss of the Shulaveri-Shomu from their homeland, hence starting the spread of PIE into the rest of Eurasia.

What about Kura-araxes (Armenia Chalcolithic) and their weird genetic?


When I wrote my “essay” was in a frenetic rhythm.  With only weeks of research and speed writing chapter after chapter. For sure I was in a hurry to get out of South Caucasus, has it was the purpose of the “essay”. From Shulaveri to Bell beakers.

Many things were left unfinished, poorly defined, mostly by my then complete ignorance and lack of interest - Get out of there, was my moto.



Now, two years later what can I say about it?



  1. 6000 bc  --Ubaid had undoubtedly a wide impact in the region. Overall. Ubaid was enormous.  The first “religious” people for sure.
  2. 5500bc – Halaf-to-Ubaid, so something happened to Halaf and their story is still untold. At the same time Hassuna -samarra just east of Halaf was already moving and Part of Ubaid elite class being  part of the Snake people.  Dalma ware was part of this influence and all turning into “mean an lean Uruk”. The end of Shulaveri-Shomu is the birth of Uruk but not only.
  3. Ubaid was part of. But something else was happening. I am not sure if it was just this but the shift Kura -Araxes dna with their weird L1a Ydna , and shift towards population coming from behind the Kopet Dag mountains eastern Caspian sea was the piece of the puzzle missing:


Something amid the likes of Jeitun Culture at the Keltiminar Culture was part of the movement, of a push through north Iran , around shouth Caspian and into Azerbaijan, to South Caucasus.

The Shulaveri vanished at the moment Northern Iran and Iraq was moving north as Ubaid but simultaneously eastern Caspian Sea people moved to Azerbaijan and brought the eastern admix that is seen in Armenia_chalc from the Kura-Araxes as well as the L1a haplogroup, better represented as Sarazm people.  

A good modeler posting in Eurogenes, Alberto, has them as Armenia_ChL 

Sarazm_Eneolithic 31.7%
Tisza_LN 28.3%
CHG 12.5%
Levant_N 10.6%


 So, this is the Kura-Araxes.   

Must remember that some of their ancestry must come from the SIONI, that is usually seen as the transition from Shulaveri to Kura-araxes but somewhat too many times linked to Leilatepe. But that is misleading. Kura-araxes as a component of Shulaveri from Balkans (Tisza_LN) has a mix of Tisza and CHG from sioni. Sioni was actually mostly the Shulaveri shomu neighbors from west Georgia, towards the Black sea , represented earlier as Paluri group, Anaseuli group, Odishi , etc.

 When Shulaveri vanished, their less developed neighbors, the Sioni, kinda of moved in. They noticed the coming of Uruk like people making the Leilatepe, but never mixed much. Instead mixed well with that previous mentioned Kopet Dag and made Kura-araxes. In opposition to Uruk people. Most likely.


But the Shulaveri were already moving spreading PIE.  The Kura-araxes remain spreading   the Hattic language and the sons of Uruk the Sumerian and Akkadian.


The rest you already know.


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2 comentários

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De Alex Nessuno a 14.02.2019 às 17:11

Hi Olympus, could you add a 'contact per email' or so somehwere on your blogs, please:
I'ld sometime perhaps send you a whole 'dossier' of articles I've gathered probably pertaining to the Shulaveri quest, that you may or may not have read yet.

I'm not yet in-depth enough to have formed an opinion, further than definitely finding it very plausible migrating that way to the Green Sahara, then getting pushed out by maybe 5.9 & 4.2 ka sudden re-desertification events via Strait of Gibraltar or so, contributing to Southern Bellbeakers' ethnogenesis via genetic and/or cultural-civilisatory impetus..
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De Alex Nessuno a 14.02.2019 às 17:42

Anyway, it's a fascinating topic, like the Iberian motillas that sprang up after 4.2ka Event as fortifications essentially to protect oldest wells in Iberia.
It's all in all like a grand sparking epic, traversing all theses different environments, constantly adapting, like R1B-V88 ASO probably. In any case, also Iberian prehistory by now appears even more interesting and multifacested than it once appeared to me.

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